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 贴子主题:彭佳欣阅读报告:通过一语和二语学习专业词汇:词义的完整性和准确性
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 发表于 2016-4-20 23:20:19 资料 留言 编辑 引用 1F

彭佳欣阅读报告:通过一语和二语学习专业词汇:词义的完整性和准确性

题目Learning technical words through L1 and L2:Completeness and accuracy of word meanings

作者Dana Gablasova

期刊English for Specific Purposes 39 (2015) 6274

一、研究背景

如今,无论是在国内接受双语教育的学生,还是留学海外的学生,在外语作为教学语言的环境下接受教育这一现象变得越来越普遍。对他们来说,学科专业词汇仍然是最具挑战性的领域之一。同样,越来越多的研究证据表明这些学生,常常在理解、学习和使用专业术语上感到吃力(Evans & Green, 2007; Evans & Morrison, 2011; Mezek, 2013; Lessard-Clouston, 2006; Ryan, 2012)

以往关于二语习得的研究都没有以母语为基准。若直接将在一语和二语习得下的词汇拿来比较,主要变量会导致实践的困难。然而,至于低频率的学科专业词汇,学生们通常在学科学习中才会接触到这类词的词义和词形。这对于以母语或非母语学习者同样如此,使研究者能够直接就一语及二语词汇学习作对比研究。

本研究主要关注在母语和外语教学环境下,学生们习得的新词汇的异同,从而指出不同语言学习环境下学生们之间的知识空白区,旨在非本族语者的教学语言环境下,提高学生对学科专业词汇的理解。最后,作者认为注意力应放在制定新的教学方法上,这不仅有益于学生学习专业词汇,更有助于教师使用恰当的教学方法来强调该学科知识的重要部分。

二、研究问题

1.通过一语和二语习得的专业词汇,其词义的完整性有何区别?

2.通过一语和二语习得的专业词汇,在出错的类别上有没有区别?

三、研究方法

1.研究对象:本研究中的受试者是斯洛伐克两所高中的72名以斯洛伐克语为母语、英语为第二语言的高中学生,其中一组构成对照组,即使用母语学习者,另外一组构成实验组,即使用外语学习者,年龄范围17-20岁。这些受试者都能熟练使用英语,他们至少学习了三年半的双语课程;他们的英语水平预计在高中毕业时能达到CEFRB2C1的水平,且两组在外语水平上无显著差异。

2.实验前的准备:本研究所用材料为两篇800字左右的说明文及其音频材料。阅读资料为英文版和斯洛伐克语版两种(其中斯洛伐克语版的文章是经研究者将英文原版翻译成斯洛伐克语,再由两名斯洛伐克本族语者校对而成),音频材料也分别由对应语言的本族语者录制而成。

按照词性、词形等要求筛选出来的12个目标词,我们能在文中找到这些词以及其定义。这12个目标词为(括号里为词出现在文中的频率):ampelography (2), diastrophism (1), ecocentrism (2), kumara (1), moa (3), moko (3), pa(2), perendale (1), rcd (2), terroir (3), transhumance (1) and whanau (3).

3.实验设计:每位受试者都要分别参加三项受试任务,分别为前测、听-读任务和后测。一开始,告知参与者本项研究主要关注双语使用下的学习情况,并且会问他们关于两篇文章主旨的问题。第一项任务是参加前测,前测使用类似问卷的形式,估测受试者对目标词的了解情况。前测结果表明,受试者没有任何关于目标词的先验知识,也不熟悉所选的主题。第二项为听录音-读文章,受试者先听录音,再阅读文章。第三项任务是参加后测,受试者需要口头回答电脑屏幕上出现的问题。有36个涵盖两篇文章内容的问题,其中12个是对目标词含义的提问,而剩下的24个是对文章内容的提问。为了减少语言转换对本研究的影响,允许受试者使用双语回答问题。

四、数据分析

本研究使用四点评分制来给受试者的回答打分。评分标准:根据文章中目标词的信息,可列出这些词汇的正确词义;在查阅字典,分析学生们的答案之后,将这些词义分为主要(核心)信息和次要信息;然后根据受试者的回答酌情打分。

为了能比较受试者对目标词的理解情况,作者先将后测中的数据进行编码。接着,第二个编码者--一位精通斯洛伐克语和英语的人,将25%的反馈信息进行了编码。使用斯皮尔曼秩相关系数(Spearman’s rho)测量评定者间信度。进一步分析受试者的答案及其得分,我们可以知道哪种错误导致得不了满分,而这两类错误分别是:遗漏核心要点和涵盖错误信息。这里,本研究使用克朗巴哈系数法(Cronbachs alpha )计算其错误等级的可靠性。结果显示出较高的可信度。

通过卡方检验(chi-square test)来考察两组学生在对词义定义的完整性上是否存在显著差异。

本研究的发现与之前的研究结果相一致,即通过母语学习专业术语的学生能力胜过通过外语学习的同龄学生。实验表明,两组学生都会遗漏核心要点或涵盖错误信息,但通过外语学习专业词汇的学生在误解词汇上,比例明显高于母语学习者。遗漏要点信息似乎由学生间特定的词汇差异造成。这里,使用对数似然函数(Log Likelihood)来验证这一差异显著。涵盖一小部分的错误信息可以归因于语言转移和语义变化(比如词义范围的扩大或缩小),这可能是由于使用自己的话来解释词汇而造成的。亦或是非本族语者过度地依赖词形态上的线索,也会导致曲解词义。

五、理论贡献

本研究对参与双语课程(如CLIL)的学生和老师都有重要的启示。在外语教学环境下学习的学生习得的单词知识不如在母语环境下的学习者学习地精准。因此,教学的重点应放在如何学到完整的、准确的专业词汇上。教学方法有:为学生单独制定词汇学习任务;开展某一特定主题的课堂活动,为学生提供多次接触专业词汇的机会;或者是教师直接就单词某一方面的知识开展知识讲座,比如语义特征分析等。

最后,不仅教学方面要反思如何习得专业词汇,评估专业词汇方面也应对此有所思考。用于外语教学课堂上的传统评估程序是,只找出通用类的单词,或者让学生将其翻译为母语,这两种方法对发现专业词汇习得的完整性与正确性完全无济于事。正如本研究使用的词汇定义任务就可以作为全面评估学生习得专业词汇的方法之一。

六、语言表述上的亮点

1.文中多次使用may,appear to,likelywith a high degree of likelihood等词或词组,体现了作者的学术严谨性,不妄下结论,只做合体推测。

a. Admittedly, it is L2 users who may be affected most by their limited proficiency and vocabulary size, but when reading subject-specific texts containing lower-frequency vocabulary, native speakers may also encounter unfamiliar words (Nelson-Herber, 1986) and face challenges learning technical vocabulary.

b.While most missing components appeared to be distributed randomly across all definitions in both groups, some systematic omissions were observed in the answers of the L2-instructed students and could account for the higher number of missing components in the answers from this group.

c.These omissions appear to result from specific lexical gaps in the vocabulary of these students,which is especially likely as these meaning components were expressed by words of low frequency in the original English text.

d.However, as the participants in both groups were tested on the same set of words, the differences in their learning gains can with a high degree of likelihood be attributed to the language of learning rather than to individual properties of the words or the contexts in which they were embedded.

2.正确使用过渡词和关联词,使句子逻辑清晰,表达自然。

a. However, for many students, especially those accessing their education through a non-native language, disciplinary vocabulary also remains one of the most challenging areas.

b.However, two of these studies (Lessard-Clouston, 2006; Ryan, 2012) were based on a rather small number of L2 speakers(fewer than ten) and, thus, the data allowed for mostly qualitative analysis.

3.避免重复,句子言简意赅。

a.The aim is to establish to what extent the acquisition of technical terms in L2 is similar to or different from that in L1.

b. The technical word knowledge of the L2-instructed participants was less precise and less elaborate than that of the L1-learning group due to the former having a higher number of missing components and a greater tendency to include incorrect components.

4.善于使用不同搭配来表达同一个意思,避免重复。

a. As students learn about new concepts, they also acquire new words for communicating and demonstrating this knowledge (Mohan & van Naerssen,1997).

Research on vocabulary acquisition from reading has identified several factors that affect the ability to pick up words from context (Huckin & Coady, 1999; Paribakht & Wesche, 1999).

b. A list of correct meaning components was made on the basis of the information provided about each TW in the texts.

The definition of ecocentrism in the text was as follows:”Ecocentrism is a nature-centred worldview based on the belief that all living organisms are equally important.”

ƒ Building on this earlier research, the four-point scale used in this study allowed us to estimate more precisely the extent and nature of the difference between the knowledge gains of native and non-native speakers.

c. These findings are in line with the outcomes of previous studies which reported that students learning through their L1 outperformed their peers who learned disciplinary terms through their second language (Haynes & Baker, 1993; Lessard-Clouston, 2006).

Similar to the finding reported by Haynes and Baker (1993), students in this study often stressed one aspect of the word’s meaning and ignored or understated other meaning components.

5.多种句型穿梭于字里行间,使文章句式多样化。

a.Mastering technical vocabulary is an integral part of subject learning (Bravo & Cervetti, 2009; Woodward-Kron, 2008). (动名词作主语)

b.It is becoming increasingly more common for students to study content through a non-native language, whether in bilingual programmes in their home country or as international students abroad. It引导的形式主语从句)

c.The responses were examined in terms of the completeness of word meaning and the presence of errors. (被动句)

d. First, most words learned by L2 users are already known to L1 speakers of the same age, making it difficult to compare acquisition of the same set of words. (结果状语从句)

e. A second coder, a proficient speaker of both Slovak and English, then coded 25 percent of the student responses. (同位语从句)

f. Given the number of students studying through the medium of their L2, special attention needs to be devoted to developing pedagogical techniques that can help these students as well as their teachers to apply suitable strategies for enhancing this important dimension of subject knowledge. (条件状语从句)







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