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 贴子主题:殷全珍阅读报告:研究二语水平不同的写作中暗喻的使用
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 发表于 2016-4-20 23:44:38 资料 留言 编辑 引用 1F

殷全珍阅读报告:研究二语水平不同的写作中暗喻的使用

文章标题:An Investigation into Metaphor Use at Different Levels of Second Language Writing

文章作者:Jeannette Littlemore, Tina Krennayr, James Turner and Sarah Turner

文章出处:Applied Linguistics, Volume 35, Issue2 P117-144

一、文献综述:

近来,语言学研究表明暗喻是普遍存在。对暗喻的研究表明暗喻有重要的作用,如评估的信号、日程管理、传递幽默或表明话题转换等。恰当地使用暗喻的能力有助于提升学习者的语言交际能力。可以说运用暗语的能力是语言学习这能力的重要指标,可以通过欧洲语言参考大纲(CEFR)界定的等级来测试。现如今,这份大纲已经成分国际上公认的测试语言能力的标准。它共有六个等级,每一等级都描述里学习者达到不同阶段所具备的听说读写能力,从中可以发现,随着语言水平的提高,学习者的语言表达更复杂,使用的暗语也越来越多。而到目前为止,仍未有学者详细研究过不同水平的学习者对暗语的使用情况。本研究借用剑桥大学ESOL考试的考试素材,找出不同语言水平的学习者使用的暗语所具备的特征,及使用暗语时会出现的提示符。研究中借用暗语群这一术语,并指出暗喻群具有重要的交际功能(Cameron and Low 2004; Cameron and Stelma 2004),而其中传递的交际功能最有效的是组合运用暗语手法。而暗语群的概念则借用“the ‘sudden onset’ of metaphor”( Cameron and Stelma 2004)。母语非英语的学习者通常更偏爱于使用暗喻手法(Nacey;2010)。同时,研究发现暗喻具有指示性作用,所以它具有评估性的功能(Littlemore and Low 2006)。还有研究指出,有一些具有暗喻性质的词块,但因为它出现在某一暗喻群中,从某一角度来说和暗喻接近暗喻,就“满血复活”,又发挥暗喻的功能,这种现象被叫作“边缘感应”(Cameron and Low 2004)。本研究具有一定的实际应用性:为培训材料提供一些与使用暗语有关的提示符,或者为语言测试机构的写作评分标准提供些参考等。

二、观点概括:

语言水平低的学习者,使用的暗喻偏少,但随着语言水平的提升,学习者使用的暗喻也越来越多,这与CEFR为不同水平的学习者设定的写作任务不同有关。数据显示,母语非英语的学习者更倾向于使用暗喻手法,而且学习者有意地展示自己运用惯用语的能力。除了研究语言水平和使用暗喻手法的多少的关系,该研究对封闭类暗喻和开放类暗喻作了划分,数据显示在某一阶段内开放类暗喻使用量多于封闭类暗喻,在这一特定的阶段,学习者有在挑战一种新的暗喻类型。随着学习者语言水平的提高,暗喻群占的比例也越来越大,也可以说学习者对暗喻的运用越来越稳,越来越自信。随着学习者水平的提高,他们就能够运用越来越复杂的暗喻,而每一阶段暗喻所扮演的角色则取决于CEFR的写作要求,这说明有效使用暗喻的能力反映了不同的语言水平。在学习过程中的任何一个阶段,使用暗喻的学习者犯错误率要高些,而且当学习达到达到一定水平时,学习者会尝试改变暗喻的使用类型,会选择开放类的暗喻要多些,因此,暗喻类型的创新导致错误的增多;但是一旦超过了这一语言水平,学习者越来越能正确地使用暗喻。但事实上,和整体错误率相比,暗喻导致的错误所占的比率要高些,且一直呈上升趋势,因此,纠正暗喻导致的错误对提高整体的正确率有很大影响,在整个学习过程中,应多加关注暗喻的使用,提高暗喻使用的正确率。

暗喻的使用受第一语言的影响,相对而言,初学者对第一语言的依赖性更大。虽然随着学习者语言水平的提高,第一语言对暗喻的影响有削弱,但总体上这种影响一直都存在,且呈上升趋势。特别是当学习者语言水平达到一定高度,所犯的暗喻错误更多时,第一语言的影响越明显。受第一语言影响所犯的暗喻错误大致有四种:一是非暗喻错误;二是体现暗喻手法的表达选择不当;三是即使选对了体现暗喻手法的正确表达,但因受第一语言影响,所写形式不当;四是措辞不当(可能原因是第一语言的影响)。

本研究除了要发现不同语言水平所使用的暗喻的特征,还要找出使用暗喻的描述符。基于以上的研究结果,本研究为CEFR划分的不同语言水平提出了一套描述符,这套描述符可以作为反映不同写作水平的评分标准,以期望语言学习者和教师更加关注暗喻手法的运用。当水平达到一定高度时,学习者更多的使用开放类暗喻,犯错更多,这也暗示了教师的教和引导在这一阶段的重要性。这方面的教学不仅引导学生根据模式使用暗喻,还引导学生创造性的使用暗喻,以更好的表达自己。值得学习者注意的是,暗喻不只是那些习语,也在不同的语言水平有着重要的表达作用。

三、语言亮点:

1.In these statements, we can see a clear progression in terms of the complexity of functions that learners are expected to perform, and we might thus expect their use of metaphor to both change and increase across the different levels.

表达“进步”时,不只有development/improvement等比较地球人都知道的词汇,还可以有progression,advancement等。progression源自progress,且更侧重于做了什么事儿,“使...取得进展”,更正式些, 更多的是用于短语“a progression of ...” 指“一连串/一系列/连贯...”

Eg: a progression of habitats from dry meadows through marshes to open water 从干燥的草地到沼泽地再到开阔的水面的一系列栖息地

Across 常指具体空间上的“从一边到另一边”,如walk across the road,Lucy has strung a banner across the wall,等等。也可以指抽象空间上的“穿过”或者“跨越(政治、宗教、社会等)”。

Eg:we want to promote cosmetics that appeal across the colour barrier.

我们想推销各种肤色的人都喜欢的化妆品。

2.It has been observed that people tend to produce metaphors in clusters , that these clusters serve important communicative functions, and that some of the most communicatively effective clusters are those that contain mixed metaphors.

这里that引导了三个主语从句,最后连个从句用and连接,而且三个句子是层层递进的关系。注意的是,每一个从句都必须保留引导词that。不只是这里的主语从句,其他从句如宾语从句、定语从句等都可以以并列结构表达并列关系或者递进关系。

Eg:I asked her why and she told me that they were so quiet, that she was the only person talking in class and that it felt like the children were punishing her by making her talk to the walls!

The owner of the house whose wife is dead, whose son works in New York and who wants to go and live in his hometown, is willing to sell the house at reduced price.

3.The objectives listed above translate into the following five research questions.

Translate 这个词不只是我们眼中的“翻译”,还可以指“(在另一种语言中)意思是”,或“转化为,转变为”,或“把...理解为”

Eg:His family’s Cantonese nickname for him translates as Never Sits Still.

家人为他起的广东话绰号意思是从来坐不住。

Reforming Warsaw’s stagnant economy requires harsh measures that would translate into job losses.

重整华沙停滞的经济需要强硬措施,这会造成工作岗位的裁减。

I translate this as a mad desire to lock up every single person with HIV.

我把这点理解为想把每个艾滋病病毒携带者都关起来的疯狂想法。

4.本文作者结构清晰,多处运用总分结构,并有明显的提示词表述: 多次用到排比,使前后对照明显,结构整齐、清晰。如;

Our study have five objectives. Our first objective was to ....... Our second objective was to .....our study’s third objective was to ......our study’s fifth objective was to...;

One difference between our approach and the MIPVU was that....Another difference between ....;

We did this for three reasons. Firstly, ... Secondly....Thirdly....

5.修辞方法的运用:

移就 transferred epithet

当为暗喻正确与否设定标准时,提到 a strict criterion 和 a generous criterion;strict和generous一般用来形容人的,这里表达“严格或宽松”

Eg:The doctor’s face expressed a kind of doubting admiration.

医生的脸上流露出钦佩而又带点疑惑的神情。

The merriest month in all the year is the merry month of May.

He threw a re-assuming arm around my shoulders.

6.suggest 有两重含义:建议和表明,而在实证研究中取第二意义。通常是研究出现何种现象或得出何种结果时,用suggest that引出研究所传递出来的观点:

Language learners often make mistakes within phrasal verbs and multiword items, suggesting that they may not always be learning them as fixed phrases.

These findings suggest that once learners have begun to use metaphor in clusters their ability to do so increases at a rapid rate.

7.多处使用transitional expressions,有承上启下作用,使内容更加紧凑

Eg:The CEFR self-assessment grid for level B2 contains...... At this level, we ...或learners at this level....

在描述暗语描述符时——

Learner should be able to .... In addition to the above, learner should be able to ...

In addition to the above , learners should also be....

8.这篇文章用词很新颖,既不过于普通、又能很好达意,并且词组运用较多

Eg: ... But these cues are by no means watertight and the notion of “deliberate” metaphor remains contentious....

The overall trend for the German-speaking learners was similar in that the only statistically significant increases occurred ...

The term under investigation appears more metaphorical than it might ordinarily appear because it is used in proximity to the words under the telescope.

此外,a wash- back effect (反波作用), start off,due to,be in line with,at length, highlight, for ease of 等

9.文章多处使用模糊限制语表达自己观点,显得比较委婉,不那么直接和绝对,体现作者的严谨性。

Such a study would be useful as it could contribute descriptors pertaining to the use of metaphor, which could be used in training materials.

The statistically significant increases are likely to be due to differences in the nature of the metaphor that....

The relatively high metaphoric density of the essays at this level might also represent an explicit attempt by learners to ...

This suggests that learners at FCE may be at an experimental stage of language development during which their task...

10.本文第二部分是该研究的五个目标,作者在描述每一个研究目标时,都会给出一个针对目标的结果,使整个研究更条理化、系统化,也加深了我们对整个研究的认识:

The analyst begins by identifying...and then decides whether.... If a more basic meaning can be identified the analyst.... If this is the case then....metaphorically used.

We were interested to see whether this would be...

One might expect development in the production of metaphor clusters...

One might expect metaphor errors due to .... And one might expect the amount of L1..







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